Thursday, December 29, 2016

in later years furnished slaves to the new colony, and I think it more than possible that some were brought on this first voyage of D'Iberville's. However that may be, there were in the colony, in May, 1713, “four hundred persons, including twenty negroes.” Then it was that Cadillac, the founder, in July or August, 1701, of Detroit, arrived in the new colony to serve as governor general. The entire province, including all the region “between Carolina on the east and Old and New Mexico on the west,” had, by royal decree dated 14th September, 1712, been transferred, as far as commercial, mining and certain other privileges were concerned, to Sieur Antoine Crozat. Permission was granted him, “if he find it proper to have blacks in the said country of the Illinois,” to “send a ship every year to trade for them directly upon the coast of Guinea, taking permission from the Guinea company to do so.” But “before Crozat's plans were fairly organized, the operations of the treaty of Utrecht debarred him from the importation of Africans. Its provisions had, in fact, transferred the control of the slave trade to England, a plan far-reaching enough to make the mother country responsible for the long bondage of the negro in America.” - Nevertheless it must be said that though Crozat's plans in regard to the importation of negroes from Africa were defeated, it must have been for reasons that do not appear in the treaty, for designs of the same sort were successfully carried out by the many-named company of which John Law was, at first, the controlling spirit. “On the 6th of June,” 1719, two vessels “arrived from the coast of Guinea with five hundred negroes. * * In the beginning of July, 1720, “the ship l'Hercule, sixteen guns, arrived at Dauphin [Ship] Island from Guinea, with a cargo of negroes for the colony. * * On the 17th [of March, 1721], the frigate l'Africain arrived with one hundred and eighty negroes, being the remains of two hundred eighty which had embarked on board in Africa. On the 23d, le Duc du Maine, thirty-six guns, arrived with three hundred and ninety-four negroes, being the remains of four hundred and fifty-three who had sailed from Africa about the same time. On the 4th of April, M. Berranger was sent to Cape Francais to purchase corn for the negroes, who were dying with hunger at Biloxi (Fort Louis). * * On the 20th, the frigate la Nereide * * arrived with two hundred and ninety-four negroes, being the remains of three hundred and fifty which had been put on board." He reported that the frigate le Charles, with a cargo of negroes, had been burnt at sea within sixty miles of the coast.” We need not continue the dismal story-—told by Benard de La Harpe—any farther to be reminded of the fact that the monopoly granted to England by the 12th article of the treaty of Utrecht related to Spanish and not to French America.

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

 1970 room rates for PANAMA CITY BEACH 

Baron Hilton Inn 

16709 W Hwy 98 32401 
L. C. Hilton, Owner 


Bikini Motel 

11002 W Hwy 98 32401 

J. L. Gheeslirtg, Owner & Mgr 

$16-20 $18-22 

Edgewater Gulf Beach Apartments

Edgewater Gulf Beach Station 32401 
Wakulla Silver Springs Co, Owner 
M. C. Buckley, Mgr. 

Old Dutch Motel 

12801 W Hwy 98 32401 
Stiles Enterprises, Inc 
■Mrs. Betty Koehler, Mgr 


$6-15 $6-15 
 "Cypress (Taxodium districhum) was discovered to be the most insect and rot resistant timber available along the Gulf Coast. After a brief experimentation with cedar in New Orleans, almost all building frames, support structures and coverings were made of cypress.

'Having set out by order of Sieur de Bienville, the commandant, to go to Massacre (Dauphin Island) with a detachment of eighteen men for the safety of the King's property, from the 15th of June until the end of August, I sank ten different sorts of wood in salt water to see which would resist the borers best. The result was that of the ten kinds of wood, there was only one sort to which the borers did not attach themselves and all the others are completely riddled. It is a very common wood, tall, easy to saw and to work, being very tender(Mandeville, 9/27/1709:51)'

'Subsequent experience revealed also that this species of wood was resistant to rot as well as to insects, and its durability was a most important characteristic in a region where wooden buildings fell into disrepair. (Moore 1983:28)'

"The export of cypress was the earliest commercially successful industry in the fledgling Louisiana colony. Even prior to the founding of New Orleans, cypress was being shipped to Martinique and Saint Domingue. By 1716, two mills supplied cypress for local needs. The first horse-powered mill was built in 1724, with nine ganged saw blades (Moore:1983: 32)

"Driven by teams of two or four horses, it could turn out 150 planks per day. In 1729 the first water-powered mill went into operation. Prefabricated 'knock-down' houses were shipped to many West Indian islands. In the 1730s Dr. Liburo's house, completely prefabricated, was shipped to the island of Nevis (Hobson, 1987)."

Friday, December 23, 2016

Why am I not surprised? About what? Why am I not surprised that with all the HYSTERICAL COMMISSIONS, museum "curators", "patriotic" organizations, "preservationists", "civic" organizations, "historians" and "social studies teachers" in this PITIFUL world, I AM THE ONLY SOUL WHO RECOGNIZES THAT 200 YEARS AGO TODAY, on Monday, DECEMBER 23, 1816, the first legislation to establish a state government for the people of PRESENT-DAY ALABAMA was read on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives. (that should give you an idea of just how well your "ALABAMA BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION" is progressing)
December 23, 1816
Read twice and committed to the committee of the whole House, on the bill "to enable the people of the western part of the Mississippi Territory to form a Constitution and State Government and for the admission of such State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States.";view=1up;seq=28
December 10, 1817: Congress finalized the creation of ALABAMA TERRITORY.

December 23, 1817: General Bernard at New Orleans submitted a plan for a fortification on Dauphin Island to the government and it was approved.
My Daddy, Earl Register, was drafted on Valentine's Day 1942 along with the rest of his gang from Dothan. After training in Colorado Springs, he took a secret train to Miami Beach where he boarded a convoy bound for North Africa. In North Africa, the Mediterranean islands and Italy, Daddy served in the 12th Air Force's 57th Bomb Wing, the same unit in which the author of Catch-22, Joseph Heller, served during WWII. When the Catch-22 movie came out, I told Daddy about it and he was impressed that so  many of his memories had been transformed onto the silver screen. Now I'm finding more and more literature that links to the many stories my Daddy told me while I was growing up (the evacuation of U.S. Army's planes from the skirts of Mount Vesuvius on March 22, 1944 or the May 3, 1944 German strafing of Corsica's Alesan Airfield). There is no way I can express my appreciation for Joseph Heller writing CATCH-22. Because of him, 18 B-25s were saved for posterity and the story of some genuine American heroes has been preserved in books like THE BRIDGEBUSTERS: The True Story of the CATCH-22 Bomb Wing.

Thursday, December 22, 2016

Tuesday, December 20, 2016

The document from this link is one of the most informative I have found on the history of the mouth of Mobile Bay. It is a Ph.D. thesis that tells the story of the VIRGINIA, a two-masted fishing schooner built in Baldwin County near Fish River in 1865. Built 152 years ago, VIRGINIA is today preserved and in storage but the story of this boat in many ways is the big part of Dauphin Island's story since 1865. Many of you will appreciate the history of Mobile Bay's oyster industry which begins on about page 24. The illustrations are SUPERB!

In 1709, D.I. was still called Massacre Island and the colonists were desperate to find a cash crop, a trading partner and any form of lucrative enterprise.

In January, a month before the Renommée arrived, "a small French sailing vessel," its name lost to history, appeared at Port Massacre.  The ship had sailed from Havana and carried a cargo of "tobacco, bacon, and brandy," some of which was purchased by the more prosperous colonists.  "This was the first instance, ten years after the arrival of the French in Louisiana," François-Xavier Martin notes, "of a vessel coming to trade with them."  Several weeks later, an 80-ton vessel out of Nantes appeared, "bringing more vendibles."  Louisiana now was perceived as a market for French trade goods.  For years, Bienville had sent traversiers to Veracruz and Havana to engage in questionable commerce, but now legitimate commerce was coming to him.  Massacre was becoming a proper port, connected, at least, to the francophone world.128
But, sadly, it was a port without its own ship.  With the exception, perhaps, of Bienville and Châteauguay, the arrival of the Renommée was welcomed by everyone; the first re-supply in nearly two years.  Iberville's old ship brought few soldiers, no women, and only a single priest, but it did bring a plethora of food and provisions, the largest re-supply since the Pélican three and a half years earlier.  And therein lay the problem--there were no more traversiers or feluccas to move the supplies from the ship to the warehouse and then up to Fort Louis.  Every available canoe and pirogue converged on the ship, but this "resulted in heavy fees, as well as losses in time and merchandise"--a prolonged, inefficient, and chaotic transfer.129
The Minister of Marine had anticipated the need for a new vessel at Mobile.  One of the passengers aboard the Renommée was Jacques Le Roux, a shipbuilder--specifically, a second-master constructor--from Rochefort who specialized in building small craft.  Le Roux had come to the colony with Iberville in 1702 and had been ordered to build a flat-bottomed pinnance that was never finished and which had rotted on the ways.  He had returned to Rochefort, but now he was back, tasked with building another flat-bottomed barge, this one of 35 or 40 tons burden, "capable of transporting goods over the sometimes shallow bars between the fort and Massacre Island."  Dartaguiette's contract with Le Roux called for 15 workers, who would be mostly Canadians, and an outlay of 3,000 livres.  The barge would be constructed at the fort, "near the small hospital on the creek just north of town."  Le Roux began construction probably in the late winter, and the barge was ready by the first week of June.  The vessel was "constructed mostly of green oak to ward off the insects and wood borers...."  The final product was between 30 and 35 tons burden, slightly smaller than what the contract had called for, but, most importantly, the barge drew only a foot of water unloaded and only four feet when fully loaded.  It completed its maiden voyage down to Massacre in late summer, and the co-commanders were pleased with the vessel's performance.  They named it the Vierge de Grâce.130

Monday, December 19, 2016

No matter how many historical names or monuments the present-day citizens of New Orleans would like to OBLITERATE as they anticipate their upcoming TRICENTENNIAL, one thing is for certain, their City of New Orleans was FOUNDED IN FEBRUARY, 1718, by expeditions of Europeans who began their journey at DAUPHIN ISLAND. In fact, the crescent in the Mississippi River where New Orleans was established was known to the indigenous people for centuries as a portage place where you left the river if your journey was taking you to the mouth of Mobile Bay.
from A HISTORY OF THE FOUNDATION OF NEW ORLEANS (1717-1722) :  "Since time immemorial, the present site of Louisiana’s capital [New Orleans] had been a camping-ground for Indians going from the Mississippi to the mouth of the Mobile River. As soon as the French had settled on Massacre Island, that site became the customary landing-place for travelers on the Father of Waters."
"In February, 1718, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, Governor of Louisiana, set out to select a place on the banks of the Mississippi River for a new settlement. Departing in small vessels from Dauphin Island, at the entrance of Mobile Bay, his party of several score navigated the shallow waters of the Gulf without difficulty, passed the bar, took soundings of the Mississippi, and began the tedious ascent of the river. The marshlands, the high-pitched cries of the wild birds, the glare of the low horizon- all of this was familiar to Bienville from a prior journey. Moving slowly against the rapid current, deftly avoiding the swirling debris of unknown northern storms and floods, the convoy for many days sought out a suitable tract of land on which to establish a settlement some one hundred miles from the Gulf, where the winding river changes from its east- southeastern course, turns almost due north and then jogs back to the southeast, a likely spot was found on the east bank of the elbow of the jog."

"The locale was wet, heavily forested, and, even then, clouded by mosquitoes, but it had certain advantages over other possible sites. The terrain was generally higher than it was along most of the river and only a narrow strip of land, traversed part way by a bayou, separated the site from Lake Ponchartrain. Access to the spot- named New Orleans- from the Gulf was afforded by Lakes Borgne and Ponchartrain as well as by the river. Indeed, it was thought that the lake route would be paramount. Bienville left fifty men to clear the land and build some houses and returned temporarily to Dauphin Island."

"The development of New Orleans proceeded fitfully. Although the earlier headquarters of the colony at Dauphin Island, Mobile Bay, and Old and New Biloxi were recognized to be inadequate as ports, there was considerable reluctance to move the colony's administration center to the Mississippi River..."

Sunday, December 18, 2016

Friday, December 16, 2016

BELIEVE IT OR NOT, Alabama's Bicentennial begins NEXT FRIDAY. One week from today, 200 years ago, on Monday, December 23, 1816, the bill to establish present-day Alabama was first introduced and read on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives. The bill was entitled A BILL TO ESTABLISH THE TERRITORY OF MOBILE and you can find it in the following link on page 8 of this book of Alabama Territorial papers. (Oh yeah, this bill got changed a little in March of 1817 when a few Georgia politicians changed its title in order to promote some land they owned on THE ALABAMA RIVER);view=1up;seq=28

Thursday, December 15, 2016

"Appointed to the Mississippi Territory with the powers of governor by President James Madison."

After the expiration of his second term he was appointed a judge in Mississippi territory (this being in the year 1817) by President Monroe, and was commissioned by Governor Holmes, and held his courts at St. Stephens, near Mobile, while Alabama was a part of Mississippi territory. Judge Archer came through to old Washington, Miss., from Maryland on horseback, for the purpose of discharging his duties, and his career as a jurist was marked by extreme fairness, mildness and forbearance. He returned to Maryland, and was reëlected to congress and served two terms more, eight years in all, when he was appointed chief justice of Maryland, and during the fifteen years that he filled this responsible position he dis played very superior mental endowments. Being of a quick perception, what might have cost others hours of study and research he reached at a bound, and the reasons for his convictions were always clear and well defined, as a reference to the Maryland reports will show. He occupied the front rank in his profession for many years, and, like his talented and eminent father before him, his winning manner, his power of bringing forth all that was good in others, his charity and honesty, won for him unbounded respect, confidence and esteem, and his death, which occurred in 1848, in the very zenith of his powers, was a fact deeply lamented by the citizens of his native state, to whom he had endeared himself. He and his father represented the one district in congress for sixteen years, and his son, Stevenson, eight years, twenty-four years in the three generations, which is the highest tribute that could be paid to their merit, popularity and ability.

from STEVENSON ARCHER'S wikipedia article "  United States judge for the Territory of Mississippi, with powers of Governor, holding court at St. Stephens. Archer resigned within a year, and returned to Maryland to continue his law practice."

ARCHER, Stevenson (son of John Archer and father of Stevenson Archer [1827-1898]), a Representative from Maryland; born at ‘Medical Hall,’ near Churchville, Harford County, Md., October 11, 1786; attended Nottingham Academy, Maryland, and was graduated from Princeton College in 1805; studied law; was admitted to the bar of Harford County in 1808 and commenced practice the same year; member of the State house of delegates 1809-1810; elected as a Republican to the Twelfth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Montgomery; reelected to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Congresses and served from October 26, 1811, to March 3, 1817; chairman, Committee on Claims (Thirteenth Congress), Committee on Expenditures in the Department of the Navy (Fourteenth Congress); paymaster to the Fortieth Maryland Militia during the War of 1812; appointed on March 5, 1817, by President Madison as United States judge for the Territory of Mississippi, with powers of Governor, holding court at St. Stephens; resigned within a year and returned to Maryland and practiced law; elected to the Sixteenth Congress (March 4, 1819-March 3, 1821); chairman, Committee on Expenditures in the Department of the Navy (Sixteenth Congress); appointed chief judge of the judicial circuit court of Baltimore and Harford Counties and Baltimore city in 1823; in 1844 was appointed by Governor Pratt as chief justice of the Maryland Court of Appeals and served until his death at ‘Medical Hall,’ near Churchville, Harford County, Md., June 26, 1848; interment in the Presbyterian Cemetery, Churchville, Md.

To the Senate of the United States: I nominate Richard Cutts, late Superintendent General of Military Sup plies, to be Second Comptroller in the Treasury Department, under the act of the 3d March, 1817, to provide for the prompt settlement of public accounts; William Lee, late Accountant of the War Department; Peter Hag- ner, late additional Accountant of the War Department; Constant Freeman, late Accountant of the Navy Department; and Stephen Pleasonton, of the State of Delaware, to be Auditors in the Treasury Department, under the- act aforesaid.

John Coffee, of Tennessee, to be Surveyor of the lands in the northern part of the Mississippi Territory, under the act of 3d March, 1817.

 Israel Pickens, of North Carolina, to be Register of the Land Office in the Mississippi Territory, east of Pearl River.

 Alexander Pope, of Georgia, to be Register of the Land Office to be open ed in the Mississippi Territory, under the act of 3d March, 1815.

 John Taylor, of South Carolina, to be Receiver of Public Moneys at the Land Office to be opened in the Mississippi Territory, under the act of the 3d March, 1815.

Stephenson Archer, of Maryland, to be additional Judge in the Mississippi Territory, to reside in the eastern part thereof, under the act of the 3d March, 1817. JAMES MONROE. March 5th, 1817.

Mary Ann Hunt

Mary Ann Hunt (born in 1817), was the daughter of Ann and David Hunt.  She probably grew up on Woodlawn Plantation in Jefferson County.  She married James Archer (born December 23, 1811) on May 16, 1836.[cxii]  James was born near Belair, Hartford County in Maryland to Chief Justice Stephenson Archer (Princeton College Graduate, class of 1805).  James graduated from Yale University and studied law with his father, becoming a practicing attorney in Hartford County, MD.  He moved to Mississippi in 1835 and to Oakwood Plantation (his family residence) in 1837 after his marriage.  He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church.[cxiii]

     Oakwood Plantation (T10N-R1E section 20 and 27)[cxiv] was in Jefferson CountyMS, fifteen miles north-east of Natchez.  James Archer had 98 slaves in the 1860 census in Jefferson County.[cxv]  Oakwood was considered a large-sized plantation.  The plantation adjoined Robert Y. Wood’s Woodland Plantation in the Church Hill area of the county – south toward Natchez from Woodlawn Plantation.  The land today is on Miss 533 south of the Church Hill (Maryland Settlement) off of U.S.61.  It was probably on the west side of Miss 533 across from Woodland Plantation which was on the east side of Miss 533.  The Civil War caused Mary Ann and James Archer to lose everything except the house and land.  They operated a school for income after the war.  They had 14 children – 4 sons and 3 daughters survived to adulthood.[cxvi]  Mary Ann Died in March of 1885 at age 67 or 68, and James died in 1898 at age 86 or 87.[cxvii]  They are buried in the Oakwood Plantation garden.[cxviii]

Stevenson Archer's resignation letter to John Calhoun

Wednesday, December 14, 2016

1816 and 1817 saw U.S. surveyors taking the field to lay off the 23 million acres of land in present-day Alabama and Georgia lost by the Creeks after the defeat of the Red Sticks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814. This began a new phase in the conflict between the United States and the rebellious Indians and fugitive slaves of the Gulf frontier. To protect the surveyors and the settlers who would follow them, the U.S. Army established remote posts in Georgia: Fort Gaines on the Chattahoochee and Camp Crawford (later renamed Fort Scott) on the Flint near present-day Bainbridge. General E.P. Gaines (namesake of D.I.'s Fort Gaines as well as General Gaines Street) who was stationed at Fort Montgomery near present-day Tensaw in northern Baldwin County decided to experiment with a Gulf route to supply these remote posts that were not served by any major roads. Fort Bowyer on Mobile Point became a major port of call on this Gulf route with flotillas and convoys bound for Apalachicola Bay stopping there for mail, for passengers or for refuge from bad weather. A lieutenant and about 20 enlisted men occupied the fort and it was considered a dependency of Fort Charlotte (earlier named Fort Conde) in Mobile.

After American troops attacked Fowltown across the Flint River from Camp Crawford in November of 1817, the Lower Creek chiefs appealed for ammunition to the British Governor of the Bahamas, Cameron. In their request for arms, the chiefs wrote ,"... they[Americans] have also settlers and troops which come from Mobile, and go up the Appalachicola river ; thus seeing no end to those invaders, necessity compelled us to have recourse to arms, and our brethren are now fighting for the land they inherited from their fathers, for their families and forces."

In the late fall of 1817, one of these U.S. Army supply flotillas taking the Gulf route to Apalachicola Bay passed Mobile Point on a voyage that would result in the death of many of its passengers and would launch the first of many so-called Seminole Wars which would at intermittent intervals consume the resources of the U.S. for the next forty years. This Indian attack occurred on the Apalachicola River near the present-day Chattahoochee, Florida, on November 30, 1817. Known as Scott's Massacre, the Indians killed about 34 soldiers, 6 women and 4 children.
This horrible event caused President Monroe to order General Jackson to raise militia and to attack the Indians in what would end up being called THE FIRST SEMINOLE WAR. Below you will find a chronology of the events leading up to SCOTT'S MASSACRE. This list of events will show that this tragic incident that led to war was produced by the necessity of using the Gulf route to supply the new American outposts established on the newly opened land acquired by the U.S. by the Treaty of Fort Jackson.


Early 1816: General E.P. Gaines ordered Lt. Col. Duncan Clinch to march his battalion of the 4th Infantry from Charleston to Fort Mitchell on the Chattahoochee River just south of present-day Phenix City.

Mid-March 1816: Lt. Col. Clinch and the 4th Infantry arrived at Fort Mitchell to protect the surveyors who were laying out the north line of the Fort Jackson Treaty cession.

March 15, 1816: Secretary of War Crawford wrote General Jackson in Nashville and instructed him to write the Spanish Governor at Pensacola about what the Governor intended to do about the Negro Fort on the Apalachicola.

March 21, 1816: General Gaines arrived at Fort Mitchell and found Clinch's soldiers building flatboats. At this time Fort Mitchell could only be supplied via the Federal Road from Georgia or from the roads coming from Fort Jackson located at the confluence of the Coosa and the Tallapoosa near present-day Wetumpka. These roads were so bad that wagons often had to be abandoned and horses used as pack animals.

March 31, 1816: The soldiers of the 4th Infantry along with Clinch and Gaines departed Fort Mitchell on flatboats headed downriver to the point on the Chattahoochee where the north line of the Fort Jackson cession met with the river.

April 2, 1816: The troops of the 4th Infantry selected a spot on the east bank of the Chattahoochee where they began to construct a stockade which would be called Fort Gaines.

April 23, 1816: General Jackson sent the letter about the Negro Fort to the Spanish Governor of Pensacola by way of an aide.

May 24, 1816: General Jackson's aide reached Pensacola and delivered his letter to the Spanish Governor.

Early June, 1816: Lt. Col. Clinch and the 4th Infantry made camp on the west bank of the Flint River near its confluence with the Chattahoochee. This camp was named Camp Crawford after the Secretary of War and was located near present-day Bainbridge, Georgia.

June 15, 1816: General Jackson received a letter from the Spanish Governor of Pensacola which stated that the governor could do nothing about the Negro Fort until he received orders from the Captain-General of Cuba. Jackson immediately wrote the Secretary of War and recommended that the 4th and 7th Infantry along with a small naval force be used to destroy the Negro Fort.

July 27, 1816: A U.S. Navy gunboat which had accompanied a flotilla of supply boats along the Gulf route from New Orleans fired a hot shot into the powder magazine of the Negro Fort on the Apalachicola and destroyed it.

July 30, 1816: The supply boats from the armed flotilla could not ascend the Apalachicola to Camp Crawford so their cargo was transferred to small boats in order to ascend to the U.S. Army post on the Flint.

September, 1816: Lt. Col. Clinch had his troops build a permanent installation at Camp Crawford. This stockade would become known as Fort Scott.

December 1816: Due to an absence of major conflict with the Indians, Fort Scott was abandoned and the 4th Infantry troops were transferred to Fort Montgomery by an unknown route but it is presumed to have been via Fort Mitchell to Fort Jackson.

February, 1817: Georgia Governor Mitchell wrote protest letters to the Secretary of War and to General Gaines stating that the evacuation of Fort Scott had left South Georgia defenseless. 

February 2, 1817: The commander at Fort Gaines(Ga.) wrote to the commander at Fort Hawkins (present-day Macon) that the Red Sticks had stolen all the army property left at Fort Scott and had burned three of the buildings.

April or May, 1817: A company of artillery from Charleston, acting as infantry, reoccupied Fort Scott.

June, 1817: The Prophet Francis returned from England to Ocklockonee Bay aboard Alexander Arbuthnot's ship.

July, 1817: Troops from Fort Scott were reinforced with 73 men from the 7th Infantry bringing this post's strength to 112 men. The post began to buy corn, coffee and sugar from the Forbes & Co. store at Prospect Bluff (former location of the Negro Fort) on the lower Apalachicola.

September 6, 1817: Major David Twiggs
of the 7th Infantry had a talk from General Gaines translated and read to the Indians at Mickasuky near present-day Tallahassee. Gaines had demanded that the Indians surrender the individuals who were guilty of murdering Americans.

September 18, 1817: The Chief of Mikasucky responded to General Gaines demand and declined to surrender the guilty Indians.

October 30, 1817: The Secretary of War ordered the 1st Brigade consisting of the 4th and 7th Regiments to leave Forts Montgomery and Montpelier in Baldwin County and march to Fort Scott. The order also authorized Gaines to remove the Indians from the land ceded to the U.S. by the Treaty of Fort Jackson. 

November 19, 1817: Colonel Matthew Arbuckle,_Jr.
commanded the 4th and 7th Regiments when they arrived at Fort Scott after they had marched across South Alabama from Forts Montgomery and Montpelier in Baldwin County. These soldiers had to build a new route by constructing 90 miles of new road during their journey. With these reinforcements, the total strength at Fort Scott was 876 men. The difficulty of supplying these men caused General Gaines to order 3 provision vessels with 160 men to leave Camp Montgomery and Mobile at about the same time that the troops began their march toward Fort Scott. These vessels would more than likely have stopped at Fort Bowyer on Mobile Point before embarking for Apalachicola Bay. It is believed that these vessels arrived in Apalachicola Bay at about the same time that the troops arrived at Fort Scott from their march from Baldwin County.

November 20, 1817: General Gaines ordered Major Twiggs and his troops to march on Fowltown near present-day Bainbridge and capture their chief and return him to Fort Scott. The troops were fired upon when they reached Fowltown and returned fire. There were no U.S. casualties but four Indian men and one woman were killed.

November 23, 1817: U.S. troops commanded by Colonel Arbuckle returned to Fowltown and found it abandoned. While loading corn from the Indians' cribs the troops were fired upon and they returned fire. One U.S. soldier was killed. He was the first casualty of the Seminole Wars. The soldiers burned all the buildings in the town and returned to Fort Scott. The chief of Fowltown called for all Indians in the present-day Tri-State Region (AL-FL-GA) to gather on the Apalachicola to attack the supply boats destined for Fort Scott.

November 30, 1817: In order to move the supply boats upriver, a line had to be attached to a tree on the shore and the boat "warped" upriver by rolling the line onto a spool located on the bow of the boat. As the boat was close to shore near the present-day boat landing at Chattahoochee, Florida, the Indians fired a volley into the crowd of soldiers, women and children on board the boat. Most were killed at that moment but the Indians waded out to the boat and continued the carnage. 6 of the 40 soldiers survived with 4 of the survivors wounded. 6 or the 7 women were killed along with all 4 of the children. This incident set into motion the series of events known in the present-day as THE FIRST SEMINOLE WAR. In late December of 1817 another shipment of rations arrived in Apalachicola Bay via the Gulf route but the boats were unable to ascend the river due to the hostility of the Indians.

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

Niles' Weekly Register ~ Saturday, July 19, 1817

Mississippi and Alabama. 
Nashville, June 10. — We are gratified in being able to state that the division of this territory made by the last congress is very generally approved of by the people. The election for the convention to frame a state constitution took place in the western part last week, where in most cases gentlemen of respectable talents were expected to be elected. It is anticipated it will not be very long before the people of the eastern section will also be permitted to elect a convention. It will settle faster than any new country ever did. Gen. Coffee is now surveying one hundred townships adjoining Madison county, lying on both sides of the Muscle Shoals, which is believed to be the flower of the Alabama territory, and has recently been laid off into three counties. All west of Madison county, north of Tennessee river, and south of the state of Tennessee is made one county, and is called Elk county, the seat of justice for which is at Fort Hampton. All south of Tennessee river, east of the Chickasaw boundary line, north of the highlands that divide the waters of the Tennessee from the waters of the Mobile, and west of the Cherokee boundary line, is made another county, called Blount county, the seat of justice of which is at Milton's Bluff All south of Blount county, to the east of Tombigbee river, to the north of Clark county, and west of the highlands that divide the waters of the Alabama from the waters of the Tombigbee, is made another county, called Sevier county, the seat of justice of which is at the falls of the Black Warrior.* These counties are settling very fast, and by the time the land can be sold, will contain a dense population.It is expected the sale of those lands will come on at Huntsville, in Nov. next, and they will sell higher per acre than any public land ever offered by the United States. It is supposed the hundred townships now surveying will produce nine millions of dollars, when sold; but from the short time al lowed by law, to keep the office open, it is apprehended that only a small part can be exposed to sale this fall. The consequence of which will be that many who are now vesting their funds in scrip, expecting to purchase lands, will be disappointed in their calculations; as they will probably have to wait until another law is passed to continue the sales.

* This is the highest point of navigation of the waters of Mobile, is surrounded by good laud, and, is only 70 miles from Huntsville, of course we may soon expect to see. a large thriving town at this place.

The 1819-1820 Tuscaloosa information I found last week at the Library of Congress created so much interest that I tuned up an article I wrote back in 1997 called FRONTIER TUSCALOOSA and posted it on one of my blogs. Plans are underway to celebrate Tuscaloosa's bicentennial in 2019, however, the 200th anniversary of Tuscaloosa's creation will occur in less than 4 months. On March 3, 1817, in the same legislation that created the ALABAMA TERRITORY, the fractional section of land which today makes up the boundaries of the original city of Tuscaloosa was reserved from entry in the public lands sale and set aside as a town site.

Saturday, December 10, 2016

Tuscaloosa shipping news from 1819 and 1820 issues of the MOBILE GAZETTE & COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER:

March 15, 1819
For the Falls of the Black Warrior
THE elegant Barge FREELOVE, 75 tons, D. Swing, master, is now ready to receive freight and will be dispatched immediately- apply on board or to
Henry D. Merritt

April 23, 1819
Port of Mobile- CLEARED
Keel Boat Saucy Jack, Taylor (master), Tuscaloosa

November 8, 1819
Port of Mobile- CLEARED
Keel Boat President, Files (master), Tuscaloosa

March 1, 1820
Port of Mobile- CLEARED
Keel-Boat, Inferior, Daniel (master), Tuscaloosa
from the April 19, 1820 issue of the MOBILE GAZETTE & COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER:

At Mobile Point

L.C. SOISSONS, has the honor to inform the Ladies and Gentlemen of this state, that he has taken the Large and Commodious House at Mobile Point, where he will be able to accommodate twenty Lodging BOARDERS- the quality of the Liquor and Table, as well as the Convenience of the Rooms and Furniture therein, will he hopes deserve the Public patronage.

The proprietors of the Mobile Gazette and Alabama Courier, are requested to insert the above six times and present their respective accounts to the subscriber.        L.C.S.
April 12
from the May 3, 1820 issue of the MOBILE GAZETTE & COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER:

We learn that the brig Ann, from New York, is ashore on the bar at Mobile point,with the loss of her foretopmast and and head of her foremast.
from the Wednesday, July 21, 1819 issue of the MOBILE GAZETTE & COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER:

   By a gentleman recently returned from the Tombeckbe we are informed, that Gen. Jackson has written to Meshuleetubbee, head chief of one of the three great divisions of the Choctaw nation, thro' the interpreter, Peachland, requesting to meet him at a time and place specified (when or where our informant did not learn) to hold a conference on the subject of the sale of part of their nation to the United States. When our informant left there, Meshuleetubbee and Peachland were on a tour through the District, to consult the other chiefs and head men on the subject: and the opinion was almost universal among the whites in the neighborhood, that the District will be ceded to the United States, either by sale or in exchange for lands on the Arkansaw- though not immediately.

We learn from another source, that a deputation of the Choctaw nation has visited the country on the Arkansaw, with a view to such an exchange, and made a very favorable report, both of the country and the quality of game. In consequence of which a great number of the Choctaws have expressed a willingness to exchange with the U.S. on the same terms as those granted to the Cherokees. The District embraces the Military Crossing of the Beckbe, where it has lately been determined, the great federal road from Nashville to New Orleans shall cross that river.

Mr. Meigs- Agent for the Cherokee Nation, has given public notice on the intruders on the Cherokee lands, that unless they remove off the said lands by the first of July, he shall apply to Gen. Jackson to remove them by military force. These intruders were ordered to leave the nation before the season of planting, and many did then remove; and proceeded to plant their crops- they therefore deserve the less commiseration.

from the Tuesday, May 4, 1819 issue of the MOBILE GAZETTE & COMMERCIAL REGISTER:

AN ACT in behalf of the Connecticut Asylumn for teaching the Deaf and Dumb

Be it enactedby the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Theat there be granted to the Connecticut Asylum, for the education and instruction of deaf and dumb persons, a township of land, or tracts of land equal there to be, located under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, in tracts of not less that four entire sections each, in any of the unlocated lands of the United States, to which the Indian title has been extinguished, which land shall be and forever remain to the use of said Asylum, for the education and instruction of the deaf and dumb persons, or if said Asylum shall sell land, which they are authorizto do, the money arising from such sale shall be and remain forever to the same use
H. Clay,
Speaker of the House of Representatives
JAS. Barbour,
President of the Senate, pro tempore.
March 3, 1819-Approved,
from the Wednesday, June 30, 1819 issue of the MOBILE GAZETTE & COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER:

Mobile Point HOTEL.

THE public are respectfully informed that the subscriber has taken that commodious and well furnished house on Mobile Point, (lately erected by Col. Hopkins) which is now open for the reception of company. From its known reputation as a very healthy resort- pleasure of sea bathing and its genteel accomodations, the subscriber feels assured of receiving a full share of public patronage.
Mobile-point, 30th June, 1819
N.B. Preparations will be made for the celebration of the 4th July.
from the Wednesday, September 8, 1819 issue of the MOBILE GAZETTE & COMMERCIAL ADVERTISBoER:

To Boat-Builders
A PERSON capable of undertaking the building of a small Steam-Boat, partly on the plan of a keel-boat; to be commenced immediately at the falls of the Black Warrior, will be certain to final employment by applying to
St. Stephens, Sept. 8-3t.

from the Wednesday, January 5, 1820 issue of the MOBILE GAZETTE & COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER:


THE owner or owners of the Schooner called the "Trial of Mobile," (lately stranded on Ship Island) are hereby notified that the above vessel has been got afloat by the Subscriber, at an expense of $30- they are requested to come forward within the time limited by Law, defray her expenses, and take her away, other wise she will be sold to pay charges.
                                                                                     JACQUES LADNER
Mobile, Dec. 22-                                                           Cedar Point

I, The undersigned do hereby certify,that I have seen the schooner called the "Trial of Mobile" lying in the Bay of Beloxy, before Mr. Dominique Ladner's House- and I further certify,that she will be ruined before long, if she is not shortly repaired- the said Schooner is now there, without sails.
    In witness whereof, have heretowith set my hand on this the (obscured) day of November, 1819
                                                                                     NOEL JOURDAN

Friday, December 09, 2016

from the Friday, April 23, 1819 issue of the MOBILE GAZETTE & COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER

(Late Editor of the ANTI-MONARCHIST, at Cambridge, South Carolina)
for publishing by subscription a weekly news-paper at Tuscaloosa (falls Black Warrior)

On making this proposition to the citizens of the Alabama Territory, a decent respect for their opinions requires that I should state the objects to be persued by the Republican & the principles by which it will be governed.

The citizens of this Territory must necessarily meet here, generally speaking, as strangers to each other. Emigrating from different and distant sections of the Union; accustomed to different and in many cases, opposite modes of State government; weded to opposite and conflicting prejudices, and bringing with them a great diversity of manners, customs and habits, they must particularly require some medium of public information, by which they may learn the views and opinions of each other respecting public measures, and public men; and through which each may communicate his own. This free and frequent interchange of sentiment cannot fail to be highly beneficial to the community; to promote concord, strengthen the bonds of union, and bring the citizens to think and act in unison, like brethren of the same family. Such a medium will be found in a widely-circulating News Paper: and no other is so well adapted to these desirable purposes.

From the rapid increase in population, it is evident this Territory must shortly be admitted into the Union, and assume the dignified title of one of the United States. A necessary consequence of which will be, the formation of a constitution-the most important task, of a civil nature, that a state ever has to perform, and for the proper execution of which a collection of all the knowledge and wisdom of the State will be the requisite.

It will be the primary object of the Republican to collect and disseminate the most useful information on this subject, whenever it may be required,and on State polity generally, as connected with the wellfare of Alabama.

The Republican will possess every possible facility of obtaining the earliest and most current information on public affairs, which will be promptly communicated to the public. It will contain, besides the latest foreign intelligence, an account of every important transaction of the general Government-a correct synopsis of the proceedings of Congress, with the votes and most interesting speeches of individual members, particularly of those from this Territory: LAWS for the Territorial government, appointments to office, &c. with every other information which may conduce to the prosperity of the Alabama Territory, and of the American Republic.

Well written essays, in prose or verse, calculated to promote Religion, Morality, Agriculture, Manufactures, the liberal Arts and Sciences, Political or General Knowledge, will be gratefully received and gratuitously published; but the Editor reserves to himself the privilege of rejecting any communications which he may deem indecorous, or otherwise unworthy a place in his columns.

In canvassing the official conduct of public officers, due respect will be always paid to veracity, candor and decorum; and private character will be held sacred.

The glorious and honorable termination of the late War, aided by the good sense of the people of the United States, having consigned to oblivion all party distinctions and animosities, the Editor scarecely deems it necessary to say, that his political creed is that of the Republican school. Having established and conducted, through the late war, a public Journal, under the title Anti-Monarchist, on principles corresponding with the title, he conceives himself warranted in the assertion that, his political principles are such as no friend to the liberties, independence and prosperity of the United States ever was, or ever will be, ashamed to avow.


The Republican will be published once a week, on a Royal sheet at $4 per annum, payable in advance.

Tuesday, December 06, 2016

A portion of Bienville's March 26, 1742 resignation letter from Grace King's 1892 JEAN BAPTISTE LE MOYNE DE BIENVILLE

" If success had always responded to my application to
the affairs of this government, and to my zeal for the service of the king,
I should willingly have consecrated the
rest of my days to him ; but a species of fatality, for some
time, pursuing and thwarting most of my best-concerted
plans, has often made me lose the fruit of my labours, and
perhaps a part of the confidence of your Highness in me.
I have not thought, therefore, that I should strain myself
any longer against my misfortune.

I wish that the officer who will be chosen to succeed me may be happier than I."

A portion of Bienville's March 26, 1742 resignation letter from A.J. Pickett's 1851 HISTORY OF ALABAMA :

"If success had always corresponded with my application to the affairs of the government and administration of the colony, and with my zeal for the service of the King, I would have rejoiced in devoting the rest of my days to such objects ; but, through a sort of fatality, which, for some time past, has obstinately thwarted my best concerted plans, I have frequently lost the fruit of my labors, and, perhaps, some ground in your excellency's confidence : — therefore have I come to the conclusion, that it is no longer necessary for me to struggle against my adverse fortune.

I hope that better luck may attend my successor."

Sunday, December 04, 2016
A map by S. Augustus Mitchell said to have been published in 1847 shows a road from Ft. Crawford, to Brooklyn, to Montezuma, to Wellborne in Coffee County, to Newton in Dale county, to Abbeville in Henry County thence to Fort Gaines on the Chattahoochie. An 1836 map by H.S.Tanner shows the same road as far as Daleville in Dale county. The Alabama State Department Map of Historical Roads and Trails shows a road dated 1819 from Ft. Crawford to the Chattahoochee called the "Improved Road. "These roads appear to all be essentially the same one that Maj. Twiggs was ordered to layout.

Friday, December 02, 2016